Deprivation of citizenship and removal from educational establishments during the Nazi era

Deprivation of citizenship

After March 1938 Jews and other persons persecuted by the Nazi regime were deprived of their citizenship. They were either expatriated or the naturalisation granted to them before 1938 was revoked. After 1941 general laws were passed that deprived all Jews of their citizenships. The depersonalisation of Jews in Austria was based on the gradual deprivation of fundamental rights imposed by the "Nürnberg Laws" and follow-up laws after May 1938. The eleventh amendment to the Reich citizenship act meant collective deprivation of citizenship for all Jews living abroad. The arbitrary process of deprivation of rights and expatriation was the first step towards extermination and reversed a long-standing process of Jewish emancipation in Austria. It was not until 1993 that citizenship matters were restored to a somewhat satisfactory extent.

Removal from educational institutions

Jews and designated enemies of the Nazi regime employed by universities were suspended immediately after the Anschluss. Civil servants employed by universities had to swear an oath to Hitler like other civil servants. Those who were not allowed to swear that oath due to their ethnic background had to withdraw from public service. Jewish teachers were dismissed. Systematic exclusion of Jews from business and society did not stop short of removing all Jewish students from educational institutions.

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City of Vienna | Chief Executive Office - Executive Group for Legal Affairs
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